Persian Calendar

Solar Hijri calendar (taqvim-e hejri-ye šamsi), based on Jalâli Calendar (aka Persian calendar), is used in Iran and Afghanistan, but names of the months are different in Farsi and Dari. In this section, you can learn both Dari and Farsi names of the months.

For the majority of non-Persian speakers, it is difficult to learn all these new names, especially when they figure out that the beginning day of each month in Jalâli calendar is not the 1st day in Georgian calendar but it is the 20th or 21st of each month in the aforementioned calendar. Maybe knowing some interesting facts about this calendar motivates you to try learning it.

  • This calendar has 365 days (366 days in a leap year). Each New Year starts on 20 or 21 of March. However, New Years never start at midnight in this calendar. In fact, the solar year begins at the instant nearest to the vernal equinox as determined by astronomical calculations for the Iran Standard Time meridian. This instant has been determined most precisely since long by Iranian scholars including the 11 century polymath “Xayyâm”. The origin of the calendar that is now used in Iran and Afghanistan is the year that Mohammad the Prophet emigrated from Mecca to Medina.
  • In this calendar, having said that the first six months of the year have 31 days, the next 5 months have 30 days while the last one has 29 days. In a leap year, that occurs every four years, the extra day is added to the last month of the mentioned year, “esfand”.  So it is important that in a leap year, your Iranian and Afghan friends’ birthday is one day before what you usually celebrate.
  •  Not confusing enough so far? O.K., let’s learn a little bit about the weekends and bank holidays. In Iran, each week starts on Saturday, “šanbe(h)” in Farsi. If you know numbers, it is very easy to learn weekdays. Just add numbers as prefix to “šanbe(h)” for the other weekdays, except for the last one that is called “jom’e(h)” or “âdine(h)”. Iranian weekends are Thursday and Friday. In Iran, there are two types of bank holidays; religious holidays (17 days) and national holidays (10 days). Because the religious holidays are according to lunar calendar which is 11 days shorter than the solar one, these holidays are changing every year. However, the other holidays such as Nouruz (New Year), anniversary of revolution and Iran’s national day are fixed in this calendar.
calendar - Persian Calendar
English Pronunciation Farsi
calendar taqvim تَقویم
minute daqiqe(h) دَقیقه
hour sâ’at ساعَت
day ruz روز
week hafte(h) هَفته
month mâh ماه
year sâl سال
today emruz اِمروز
yesterday diruz دیروز
the day before yesterday pariruz پَریروز
tomorrow fardâ فَردا
the day after tomorrow pasfardâ پَسفَردا
night šab شَب
tonight emšab اِمشَب
last night dišab دیشَب
two nights ago parišab پَریشَب
tomorrow night fardâ šab فَردا شَب
this year emsâl اِمسال
last year pârsâl پارسال
two years ago piyârsâl پیارسال
next week hafte(h)-ye âyande(h) هَفته یِ آیَنده
last week hafteye(h) piš هفته ی پیش
in two months taa do mâh ba’d/dige(h) تا دو ماه بَعد/ دیگه
three hours ago se(h) saa’at piš/ qabl سه ساعَتِ پیش/قَبل
five days ago 5 ruz piš /qabl پَنج روزِ پیش/قبل
week days ruzhâ-ye hafte(h) روزهای هَفته
Saturday šanbe(h) شَنبه
Sunday yekšanbe(h) یِکشَنبه
Monday došanbe(h) دوشَنبه
Tuesday se(h)šanbe(h) سه شَنبه
Wednesday čâhâršanbe(h) چهارشَنبه
Thursday panjšanbe(h) پَنجشَنبه
Friday jom’e(h) جُمعه
week -end âxar-e hafte(h) آخَرِ هَفته
holidays ruzhâ-ye ta’til روزهای تَعطیل
season fasl فَصل
spring bahâr بَهار
summer tâbestân تابِستان
autumn pâyiz پاییز
winter zemestân زِمِستان

Jalâli Months in Iranian calendar

Georgian Date Jalali months Farsi
March 21- April 20 farvardin فَروَردین
April 21- May 21 ordibehešt اُردیبِهِشت
May 22- June 21 xordâd خُرداد
June 21- July 22 tir تیر
July 23- August 22 mordâd مُرداد
August 23- September 22 šahrivar شَهریوَر
September 23- October 22 mehr مِهر
October 23- Nobvember 21 âbân آبان
November 22- December 21 âzar آذر
December 22- January 20 dey دِی
January 21-February 19 bahman بَهمَن
February 20- March 20 esfand اِسفَند

Jalâli Months in Afghanistan calendar

Georgian Date Dari months Farsi Sound
March 21- April 20 hamal حَمل
April 21- May 21 sawr ثور
May 22- June 21 jawzâ جوزا
June 21- July 22 saratân سرطان
July 23- August 22 asad اسد
August 23- September 22 sonbola سنبله
September 23- October 22 mizân میزان
October 23- Nobvember 21 aqrab عقرب
November 22- December 21 qaws قوس
December 22- January 20 jadi جدی
January 21-February 19 dalv دلو
February 20- March 20 hut حوت